CBD is one of over a hundred cannabinoids found in CBD oils each with amazing properties, discover the power of the full spectrum
what are cannabinoids and CBD? what do they do?
If you’ve found your way here, to nabino, you’re probably already somewhat familiar with CBD or at least the purported wellbeing benefits of it. As a stand-alone molecule, CBD (Cannabidiol) is a remarkable feat of nature – a phytocannabinoid found in the cannabis (or hemp) plant which works in synergy with your body’s own endocannabinoid system, to help you find your centre in an entirely organic way.
But, despite how marvellous this molecule is, it’s just one of more than 120 cannabinoids created in hemp plants (and humans) which burgeoning research is now revealing the many beneficial properties of.
As the list of cannabinoid discoveries continue to grow, so too does our understanding of just how this superplant interacts with the human body - an important line of investigation as the lifestyle enhancements provided by this plant are now enjoyed by an estimated 1.3M in the UK and 42M people in the US. And as more research is being performed, it’s becoming increasingly apparent that the many beneficial properties each of these organic compounds have are all-the-more powerful when allowed to work together.
Collectively these 120+ cannabinoids create what is known as the entourage effect – an occurrence where the combined effect is more powerful than the sum of the parts. In an ideal world, this even includes the use of infamous THC (the psychoactive compound in cannabis that gets you high), which just like CBD offers a whole host of wellbeing benefits on its own, and even more so when used in conjunction with everything else.
As it stands, CBD oil containing a noticeable dose of THC is not yet legal in the UK so the full entourage effect is not possible with the CBD oil you can buy over here. However, full spectrum (which contains all available cannabinoids and a very low, legal limit of THC) and broad spectrum CBD (without THC) is available to buy. As is CBD isolate (CBD on its own) and terpene-enriched CBD (CBD isolate with the addition of certain compounds). So when you buy CBD, it’s important to understand what cannabinoids are and which type are present in your chosen product to ensure that you select the right one to suit your needs.
nabino (cannabinoids) has done the hard work for you, sourcing all the very best CBD cosmetics, CBD topicals, CBD vapes and CBD food supplement products available in the UK (with a few Nabino exclusives besides!) to help you find your centre. But we also welcome cannabis education and encourage everyone to delight in their own research and investigation into this superplant and its many uses. To help you do this, we have put together a wealth of easy-to-read yet in-depth, science-based articles for you to learn from and enjoy. And, if you ever have any questions or comments, we always love to hear from you and are happy to chat!
Cannabinoids Vs Endocannabinoids
The first thing to know about cannabinoids is that we all make our own. There are two types of cannabinoids: endocannabinoids (‘endo’ implying that it is made in the body naturally) and phytocannabinoids (‘phyto’ indicating that they come from a plant). For example, cannabidiol is the phytocannabinoid in CBD oil and anandamide is an endocannabinoid created by the human body which is known for giving you a ‘runners high’ during exercise.
Although the complex network that is the human endocannabinoid system (ECS) is now known for being highly involved in vital body balance and function, it has only recently been discovered so scientists are still figuring out exactly what it does. So far, we know that it regulates our nervous system and our immune system and seems to be a communication network between the two. A cannabinoid (both endo and phyto) is a molecule that binds to a receptor in the ECS and may modulate it in some way.
There are loads of different phytocannabinoids in superplants cannabis and hemp (over one hundred discovered, and counting) and, although each molecule has its own role to play in the body, they work synergistically to support each other.
What are the main cannabinoids found in the superplant and what do they do?
The cannabis plant has been utilised across the world for thousands of years and hailed for its wide array of effects on the body. But while a lot of people are interested in putting the wellbeing benefits of this plants to good use in their life, some have concerns about the psychoactive effects of THC. This is where CBD and CBD oil really excels, as although it works on serotonin receptors to help soothe the mind (6), it doesn’t get you high. Even without its fellow cannabinoids, CBD also works on many different facets of the immune system and is thought to be particularly helpful for its anti-inflammatory effects (7), although it is worth bearing in mind that not many trials have been done on humans so we can't be entirely certain how useful it is. It’s no wonder that CBD is the current star of the superplant show!
Trippy, happy THC is the stuff in marijuana that makes you giggle. In large doses, it gets you stoned. Here at nabino, we’re not all that into getting stoned but we are super-excited about microdosing - a method of taking low doses of full spectrum CBD (with the addition of THC) throughout the day, to reap the wellness benefits of THC as an individual molecule and the aforementioned entourage effect too.
THC is one cannabinoid that can be particularly useful if you’re struggling with sleep (5) or dealing with pain (8). There's a lot of anecdotal evidence about these uses, but as with most aspects of the cannabis plant and the ECS, more work is needed on the clinical trial front. Vapes, drops and edibles are great for microdosing THC and we’re working hard to legally bring the benefits of THC to you.
Tetrahydrocannabinolic Acid (THCA)
This phytocannabinoid has been shown to be neuroprotective. Specifically, it generates more mitochondria in neurons which are responsible for creating energy (3). Again, this study was conducted on cells and not people so we can't take this evidence as fool-proof, however, it is believed that this molecule could help counteract some of the less desirable, memory loss side effects that can come with superplant use. In the plant’s lifecycle, this molecule’s role is to cause cell necrosis (cell death) when plant cells aren’t functioning anymore and works to kill invading insects with caryophyllene oxide (9).
This molecule has been known to make people sleepy, especially when combined with a terpene called myrcene, making it a fantastic lifestyle addition to someone who struggles with sleep. A study on mice showed that cannabinol also helps with convulsions, but while this presents an exciting avenue to pursue in further research, at this stage this isn’t proof that it would work for humans too. However, there is much anecdotal evidence for use of cannabis for people suffering with seizures, with activists such as Chelsea Leyland campaigning for its use in epilepsy.
Cannabigerol blocks the uptake of gamma-Aminobutyric acid GABA which is the neurotransmitter in the nervous system that relaxes us (10). Blocking the uptake means there is more left circulating in the body, which it enhances its effects and it works particularly well in conjunction with terpene linalool. It’s these receptors that the anxiolytic pharmaceuticals benzodiazepines work on. In addition, studies on people have shown Cannabigerol can help to improve symptoms in psoriasis (11).
A study on rodents shows this phytocannabinoid works in synergy with limonene for mood lifting effects (12). It also blocks the mop up of the bliss-molecule endocannabinoid anandamide, which binds to CB1 receptors and elicits pleasurable feelings, therefore increasing anandamide’s activity (13).
There’s some evidence that THCV may be useful for tackling metabolic syndrome after some interesting results combatting obesity in mice (1). It has high affinity for the CB2 receptors which are implicated in the immune system, with studies showing it can possibly have anti-inflammatory effects too (2). However, the research done around this cannabinoid is limited so we can't be entirely sure what it does at this stage.
Seizures and cannabinoids have been of particular interest to scientists and activists because of the way the endocannabinoid system interacts with the nervous system. CBDV is one cannabinoid shown to help with convulsions and reducing neuronal degeneration on a study on rats (4) . Like we mentioned earlier, studies on mice does not necessarily mean the same effects will translate to humans, but there is a lot of anecdotal evidence around the superplant’s use for this. It’s not yet scientifically validated, but it does suggest an intriguing starting point for research.
With over 100 phytocannabinoids available in cannabis, hemp and CBD oils (and likely more to be discovered), we’ve only lightly touched on the attributes and diversity of this superplant. But unfortunately, as research is still limited we’re unable to confirm individual effects entirely. However, it is clear that these cannabinoids are all team players clamouring to work together and create the "entourage effect". Isolating these molecules may take away from their superpowers, as in truth it’s when they work in synergy with other phytochemicals that they perform to the best of their ability.
As with wine and grapes, the exact blend of cannabinoids in an oil will depend on the exact cultivar of plant used. Hemp is generally THC lite, Marijuana is THC heavy. But there are hundreds of varieties underneath these general categories. Like fine wine, where and how they are grown will also influence the blend of oils. You can read about good CBD and how we curate our products here.
All Nabino products contain one of four types of oil: Full spectrum (which contains all cannabinols and terpenes in the source plant, including a miniscule legal dose of THC). Broad spectrum (which has everything but the THC left in) and Compound spectrums (built up from the individual cannabinoids and terpenes). Isolates contain pure distilled CBD and nothing else and as a result is almost tasteless. You can read more about spectrums here. Where do you want to go today?
CBD products are not medicines and are not intended to treat or cure any medical conditions. Our CBD products are for adults only. Please do not take if you are pregnant or breastfeeding. Please seek the advice of your doctor if you are taking prescription medications.
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